What is Personality Psychology? (2022)

Personality Psychology as a Scientific Discipline

Contents

  • Preamble
  • How is personality defined?
  • The big questions of personality of personality psychology (also: anarrated slideshow),
  • What is the field of personality psychology
  • Who are personality psychologists?
  • A bit of history for those who are interested

Preamble

One of the missions of our laboratory has been to develop, expand and promote a new unified vision of personality psychology, loosely described under the label, "The Personality Systems Framework," and reported on furtheron this site.

During much of the later 20th century, personality psychology was often viewed as a field of competing "grand theories," proposed by such individuals as Sigmund Freud, Carl Jung, Carl Rogers, and Hans Eysenck, often with poor empirical validation and few ways of resolving conflicts among them. Indeed, it is still taught in that way today in many institutions although there are better alternatives.

(Video) What is Personality? - Personality Psychology

By promoting a unified framework for the discipline's teaching and research we hope to improve and to promote the field by clarifying its central concerns and strengths.

A key part of the philosophy behind our theoretical work is that it is important to begin with both an understanding of the history of the discipline of personality psychology and an understanding of its empirical strengths and diversity today. In part, this helps identify natural areas of agreement that can provide a basis for a unified look at the discipline.

How Is Personality Defined?

Asserting the Definition of Personality

There are many areas of agreement within the discipline -- for example, there is widespread agreement as to the definition of personality.

Personality concerns the most important, most noticeable, parts of an individual's psychological life. Personality concerns whether a person is happy or sad, energetic or apathetic, smart or dull. Over the years, many different definitions have been proposed for personality. Most of the definitions refer to a mental system—a collection of psychological parts including motives, emotions, and thoughts. The definitions vary a bit as to what those parts might be, but they come down to the idea that personality involves a pattern or global operation of mental systems. Here are some definitions:

  • "Personality is the entire mental organization of a human being at any stage of his development. It embraces every phase of human character: intellect, temperament, skill, morality, and every attitude that has been built up in the course of one's life." (Warren & Carmichael, 1930, p. 333)
  • (In an acknowledged overstatement...)"Personality is the essence of a human being." (Hall & Lindzey, 1957, p. 9, characterizing statements by Gordon Allport)
  • "An individual's pattern of psychological processes arising from motives, feelings, thoughts, and other major areas of psychological function. Personality is expressed through its influences on the body, in conscious mental life, and through the individual's social behavior." (Mayer, 2005)

In the 2007 meeting of theAssociation for Research in Personality,a Presidential Panel was concerned with,"The Future of Personality Psychology". One participant on that panel raised a concern over whether definitions of personality were vague and contradictory. That was surprising as there really does appear to be a fairly wide consensus that personality is the study of a person's overall psychological system. Perhaps one reason for the sense that definitions of personality diverge is because other psychologists -- those who are not personality psychologists -- often misunderstand our field and define the field in mistaken ways. The article entitledAsserting the Definition of Personality(PDF), describes this state of affairs.

The Big Questions of Personality Psychology

Personality psychology had its origins in people who sought answers to big quesitons. A 2007 article from the laboratory surveyed the intellectual history of the big questions that inspired the discipline, and 20 questions were identified that were most important to the field. Of these, four in particular seemed especially pertinent.

To hear a bit about the study, try this audio-narrated slide show in powerpoint.

Narrated slide show:The Big Questions of Personality

A diagram of some very important central questions placed them into four groups like this:

(Video) Measuring Personality: Crash Course Psychology #22

What is Personality Psychology? (1)

Figure adapted from Mayer, J. D.

What Is the Field of Personality Psychology?

Personality Psychology as a Scientific Discipline

Personality psychology is the scientific discipline that studies the personality system. The discipline seeks to understand a person's major psychological patterns and how those patterns are expressed in an individual's life. Personality psychologists conduct scientific research on personality, teach about personality (usually at the college and university level) and participate in the broader discipline of psychology.

Thinking About the Problem

Different answers are possible to the question "Why Study Personality?" Here is one answer that can help you understand something of what personality and its study is about.

Each of us, as human beings, influences much that is within us and around us. Each of us has many psychological attributes—feelings, thoughts, motivations, and the like. It is our personality that orchestrates our psychological qualities.

  • Our feelings—strong or slight—determine some of how we act and react. Our thoughts guide us and influence others, who may be entertained by our wit or attracted to our wisdom.
  • Our sense of self helps inform us of how to make choices among alternatives—choices that may help us grow, or, that may harm us.
  • This personality of ours slowly and persistently influences how we feel, what we do, who we are, and how we influence the world around us.
  • Most of us can't help but wonder how our personality works, how our personality came to be—and what it might mean for our future.
  • We also wonder about the personalities of others—how they are the same or different from us.
  • Personality psychology concerns what our personalities are, how they work, and what they can mean to our own and others' futures.

The discipline of personality psychology helps answer some of these questions. If such questions interest you, you may want to learn more.

Who Are Personality Psychologists?

Contemporary Personality Psychologists

Personality psychologists are psychologists who are interested in the study of how an individual's major psychological subsystems—motives, emotions, the self, and others— function together to create a person's life patterns.

Today, most personality psychologists have Ph.D.'s in psychology—usually with a specialization in personality, social, or clinical psychology. That was not always the case, however, and some earlier personality psychologists have been trained in medicine and other fields.

Today, many personality psychologists work in colleges and universities, where they teach courses in personality psychology and related areas, and conduct research on personality and how it influences people's lives.

Another group of personality psychologists work in organizational settings, where they often may be found in departments of Human Resources. In such roles, they may attempt to understand, for example, the particular personality traits that will help individuals work successfully at a particular job.

(Video) Introduction to Personality Psychology

Still other personality psychologists work as consultants to organizations, helping with the selection and retention of key personnel.

Finding Out More About Contemporary Psychologists

If you are interested in seeing brief descriptions of contemporary personality psychologists, and visiting their web pages, you can find these from the web site maintained by theAssociation for Research in Personality. Click here to go to themember profiles for many of these individuals.

Other psychologists with interest in personality psychology can be found on theSocial Psychology Network. To find them (the list will partly overlap with the ARP list), go to theMembership List area of the SPN web site—and, using the search box at the top, enter the term "personality."

Of course, for either the ARP or SPN sites, if you have the name of a psychologist you are particularly interested in, you can search for that name.

Personality Psychologists in History:

The Grand Theorists of the Early-to-Mid 20th Century

When people think of personality psychologists, certain names often come to mind: Sigmund Freud, Carl Jung, Carl Rogers, and others. These individuals were highly prominent theorists and researchers of human nature in the early-to-mid 20th century. They sometimes are referred to as the Grand Theorists of the field.

Today, there certainly are eminent theorists of personality, but the field no longer depends on grand theorists for its mission(s). Rather, it is focussed today on research about how the personality system operates.

Finding Out More About Grand Theorists

If you are interested in finding out more about grand theorists from an online source, a great resource is Professor C. George Boeree'son-line and open-access textbook, "Personality Theories."

A Bit of History for Those Who Are Interested:

Some Rationales for the Field Described in Early Textbooks

(Video) Intro to Psychology Theories of Personality

Some ideas about why to study personality also can be found in the textbooks of the field. Among the earliest (if not the earliest) textbook in the United States was Roback's (1928) "Psychology of Character." He writes:

The announcement of courses on personality, which at one time would have been greeted not without a perceptibly amused expression, is now rather welcomed by educators... (Roback, 1928, p. ix)

Roback wrote before the institutionalization of the word "personality," often preferring the term "character" -- though he recognizes "personality" as a somewhat broader term. In a sequence of passages, Roback notes that personality, especially the portion of personality referred to as character, is a moral possession of an individual.

  • ...The most general use of the word "character" in everyday life is invariably colored with moral predicates...The popular mind has never distinguished more than two kinds of characters. They were either good or bad, strong or weak, noble or base, of a high or low type;...To say that a man has no character is a euphemistic equivalent for the expression that he has a low type of character...(Roback, 1928, p. 6)
  • . ...the more strongly moralists emphasized the cardinal importance of character for ethics...the more were experimental psychologists inclined to dispose of the whole matter with a word or two... (Roback, 1928, p. 7)
  • ...The ethical and pedagogical aspects that deal with character-building and for the most part contain horatory appeals in behalf of the moral life do not enter here...It is quite obvious that the theoretical examination of character must antedate both these inquiries, and especially the latter. (Roback, 1928, p. 7)

All told, it seems to me that Roback is interested in character development and character building. To do so, however, he argues, a scientific study -- that is, of personality -- must take precedence.

Gordon Allport read and benefitted from Roback's work (his assistance is acknowledged by Roback).

Nine years later, Allport's own book introduced a new reason for a study of personality. Allport addressed, not the public's need for the science, but rather his scientific colleagues' need.

  • ...As a rule, science regards the individual as a mere bothersome accident. Psychology, too, ordinarily treats him as something to be brushed aside so the main business of accounting for the uniformity of events can get under way. The result is that on all sides we see psychologists enthusiastically at work upon a somewhat shadowy portrait entitled, "the generalized human mind."...It seems unreal and esoteric, devoid of locus, self-consciousness, and organic unity -- all essential characteristics of the minds we know.
  • ...[A] new movement within psychological science has gradually grown up. It attempts...to depict and account for the manifest individuality of mind. This new movement has come to be known (in America) as thepsychology of personality. (Allport, 1937, p. vii)

Why was such a new movement needed? Allport summarized some of the arguments others had made.

Without the co-ordinating concept of Person (or some equivalent such as Self or Ego), it is impossible to account for, or even to depict, the interaction of mental processes upon one another. Memory affects perception, desire influences meaning, meaning determines action, and action shapes memory; and so on...

The phenomenon of mentalorganizationcan have no significance unless it is viewed as taking place within a definite framework...the personal life. (Allport, 1937, p. 550).

(Video) Who are you, really? The puzzle of personality | Brian Little

Again, continuing in relation to the discipline of psychology more generally, Allport argues that the psychology of personality can make these contributions (Allport, 1937, pp. 550-566), which I have summarized as follows:

  • develop general laws as to how an individual's uniqueness comes about
  • predict a person's behavior on the basis of his/her individual characteristics
  • discover the individual person's own point of view of who she or he is
  • discover the parts of personality
  • discover the structure that holds those parts together
  • give preference to certain concepts -- e.g., ego-system, trait, life-history -- that recognize a person's individuality
    discover common traits
  • codify knowledge as to the nature of human nature
  • turn interpersonal impressions into more reliable knowledge
  • adequately represent the individual in science, and provide that individual with respect

Henry Murray and the Harvard Guidance Clinic (Murray, 1938) had this to say:

  • Man is to-day's great problem. What can we know about him and how can it be said in words that have clear meaning?...The point of view adopted in this book is that personalities constitute the subject mattter of psychology, the life history of a single man being the unit with which this discipline has to deal. (Murray, 1938, p. 3)
  • We judged the time had come when systematic, full length studies of individuals could be made to bring results. And more than this, indeed, it seemed a necessary thing to do. For if the constituent processes of personality are mutually dependent, then one must know a lot to comprehend a little. (Murray, 1938, p. 5)

Reasons could be readily advanced for such studies besides the essential ones that knowledge isper sea final good and that man is of all objects the most inviting. There are many who believe that an understanding of human nature is the great requirement of this age; that modern man is 'up against it,' confused, dissatisfied, despairing and ready to regress; that what he needs is the power to change and redirect himself and others; and that possession of this special power can only be won through knowledge. If it is true, as some reasonable men affirm, that culture -- the best of man's high heritage -- is in jeopardy, and that to save and further it man, its creator and conserver, must be changed -- regenerated or developed differently from birth -- then the immediate requisite is a science of human nature. (Murray, 1938, p. 35)

References

  • Allport, G. W. (1937).Personality: A psychological interpretation. New York, NY: Henry Holt & Company.
  • Hall, C. S., & Lindzey, G. (1957).Theories of personality. New York, NY: John Wiley & Sons.
  • Mayer, J. D. (2005). A classification of DSM-IV-TR mental disorders according to their relation to the personality system. In J. C. Thomas & D. L. Segal (Eds.),Comprehensive handbook of personality and psychopathology (CHOPP) Vol. 1: Personality and everyday functioning. New York, NY: John Wiley & Sons.
  • Murray, H. A. et al. (1938).Explorations in personality. New York, NY: Oxford University Press.
  • Roback, A. A. (1928).The psychology of character, with a survey of temperament. New York, NY: Harcourt, Brace, & Company, Inc.
  • Warren, H. C., & Carmichael, L.,Elements of human psychology(Rev. Ed.; Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin, 1930), p. 333/Cited in Allport,Pattern & growth in personality(1937/1961, p.36).

FAQs

What is personality according to psychology? ›

Personality refers to individual differences in characteristic patterns of thinking, feeling and behaving. The study of personality focuses on two broad areas: One is understanding individual differences in particular personality characteristics, such as sociability or irritability.

What are examples of personality psychology? ›

The Big Five theory states that each trait exists as a broad continuum. An individual's personality will fall somewhere on the spectrum for each trait. For example, you might be high in extroversion, conscientiousness, and agreeableness, but somewhere in the middle for openness and neuroticism.

Why is personality psychology important? ›

Why Is Personality Psychology Important? Personality psychology helps people better understand the factors that play a role in personality. It also allows us to know more about how certain personality characteristics affect behavior. For example, some traits are linked to higher levels of happiness and well-being.

What are the 4 types of personality? ›

A study published in Nature Human Behaviour reveals that there are four personality types — average, reserved, role-model and self-centered — and these findings might change the thinking about personality in general.

What is personality and its types? ›

Personality embraces moods, attitudes, and opinions and is most clearly expressed in interactions with other people. It includes behavioral characteristics, both inherent and acquired, that distinguish one person from another and that can be observed in people's relations to the environment and to the social group.

What are the 7 theories of personality? ›

The major theories include dispositional (trait) perspective, psychodynamic, humanistic, biological, behaviorist, evolutionary, and social learning perspective.

What are the theories of personality? ›

The Six Different Theories About Personality

In describing personality, we'll go through six different personality theories: psychoanalytic theory, humanistic theory, trait theory, social-cognitive theory, biological theory, and behaviorist theory.

What is the study of personality called? ›

Personality psychology is the scientific study of individual differences in people's thoughts, feelings, and behavior, and how these come together as a whole.

What are the components of personality? ›

The Five Factor Model breaks personality down into five components: Agreeableness, Conscientiousness, Extraversion, Openness, and Stress Tolerance. Personality tests that are based on this model measure where an individual lies on the spectrum of each of the five traits.

How is personality developed? ›

According to social cognitive theory, personality formation occurs when people observe the behaviors of others. This leads to adaptation and assimilation, particularly if those behaviors are rewarded.

How does personality affect behavior? ›

Personalities are characterized in terms of traits, which are relatively enduring characteristics that influence our behaviour across many situations. Personality traits such as introversion, friendliness, conscientiousness, honesty, and helpfulness are important because they help explain consistencies in behaviour.

What are factors that influence personality? ›

Factors Affecting Personality Development of Children
  • Parental Influence. ...
  • Home Environment. ...
  • School Environment. ...
  • Culture. ...
  • Family Treatment. ...
  • Mass Media and Social Media.
21 Dec 2021

What are the main types of personality? ›

Many contemporary personality psychologists believe that there are five basic dimensions of personality, often referred to as the "Big 5" personality traits. These five primary personality traits are extraversion (also often spelled extroversion), agreeableness, openness, conscientiousness, and neuroticism.

What is a good personality? ›

When we say that someone has a "good personality" we mean that they are likable, interesting and pleasant to be with. Everyone wants to be attractive to others. To that end, having a good personality is vital - probably even more so than good looks.

How do we measure personality? ›

How to Measure Personality? (5 Ways) | Psychology
  1. Self-Report Tests of Personality: Questionnaires and Inventories: ...
  2. Projective Measures of Personality: ...
  3. Other Measures: Behavioral Observations, Interviews, and Biological Measures: ...
  4. Personality and Health: The Type A Behavior Pattern, Sensation Seeking, and Longevity:

What are the three main characteristics of personality? ›

There are three criteria that are characterize personality traits: (1) consistency, (2) stability, and (3) individual differences. To have a personality trait, individuals must be somewhat consistent across situations in their behaviors related to the trait.

What is the nature of personality? ›

“Psychologically, personality is the integrated and dynamic organisation of the physical, mental, moral, and social qualities of the individual as that manifests itself to others in social life.” Thus it is a constellation of physical, mental, moral, social, emotional and attitudinal traits, well-integrated in the man.

How many types of personalities are there? ›

Myers-Briggs Type Indicator: The 16 Personality Types.

Who started personality psychology? ›

Gordon Allport was a pioneering psychologist often referred to as one of the founders of personality psychology.

What is the best theory of personality? ›

Freud's Theory

According to Freud, the development of personality depends on instinctual drives, unconscious processes, and early childhood influences; thus, a person's personality is more or less solidified within the first five years of life.

Who gave personality theory? ›

Sigmund Freud (1856-1939) was the founder of psychoanalytic theory. His theories emphasized the importance of the unconscious mind, childhood experiences, dreams, and symbolism.

What is Freud theory of personality? ›

According to Sigmund Freud, human personality is complex and has more than a single component. In his famous psychoanalytic theory, Freud states that personality is composed of three elements known as the id, the ego, and the superego. These elements work together to create complex human behaviors.

What are the three personality development? ›

There are three main influences on personality development that we are going to look at in this lesson. Those are heredity, environment, and situation.

What is Carl Jung's theory of personality? ›

Jung believed that the human psyche had three parts: the ego, personal unconscious and collective unconscious. Finally, his dream analysis was broader than Freud's, as Jung believed that symbols could mean different things to different people.

Can personality change? ›

While many may suspect that people's personalities are fixed in childhood, new research suggests that most people's personalities evolve throughout their lives.

What are the 5 stages of personality development? ›

Freud proposed that personality development in childhood takes place during five psychosexual stages, which are the oral, anal, phallic, latency, and genital stages.

Is personality born or made? ›

A person's overall personality starts with an inborn disposition yet changes over time as a person interacts with their environment. In other words, a person's overall personality is made up of both natural (inborn) and adaptive (learned) traits.

Where do our personalities come from? ›

So whether you'd like to admit it or not, much of your personality comes from your parents. In fact, for humans, about half of the differences in personality are genetic, Soto said. The rest of the variability in personality comes from your environment, such as life experiences and birth order.

Does personality change with age? ›

In addition to thinking skills, people differ in personality. Personality may change somewhat over time, but not greatly. These changes do not seem to be systematically related to thinking skills or other common changes we experience in ageing. This suggests that we can retain our individuality as we age.

How personality affects your life? ›

Research shows that your personality trait (patterns of thinking, feeling and behaving) not only changes your outlook on life but also change the way you perceive reality at work, and how you relate with family, friends, and romantic partners.

What is difference between personality and behavior? ›

Essentially, personality is referred to as the combination of values, views, set responses, patterns of thought and characteristics which are relatively stable aspects of an individual. Behaviour on the other hand, is how that individual comes across to others in their actions.

Is personality genetic? ›

Scientists estimate that 20 to 60 percent of temperament is determined by genetics. Temperament, however, does not have a clear pattern of inheritance and there are not specific genes that confer specific temperamental traits.

What is the conclusion of personality? ›

Conclusion. Human personality is a complex area of study. Not only is human nature complex, but also each individual has a unique combination of inherent abilities and preferences and learned responses.

What is basic personality? ›

By. n. a pattern of thinking, feeling, and behaving which is distinct among people raised within a similar culture. These similarities in personality are an offshoot of having been exposed to similar child-rearing practices.

What are the 4 color personalities? ›

The Color Code is based on four types of personality, identified by color: Red, (motivated by power); Blue, (motivated by intimacy); White, (motivated by peace); and Yellow, (motivated by fun).

What is unique personality? ›

To be a unique person means that you are one of a kind and no other person is exactly like you. This uniqueness partly comes from within, shown through our actions and behaviors. According to the Oxford Dictionary, the meaning of unique is “being the only one of its kind; unlike anything else.

How do you maintain your personality? ›

How To Have An Impressive Personality
  1. Sharpen Up Your Social Skills. ...
  2. Develop Your Own Style. ...
  3. Don't Doubt Yourself. ...
  4. Learn From Your Mistakes. ...
  5. Be Good And Sincere Listener. ...
  6. Be Passionate About Your Work. ...
  7. Know Your Positives. ...
  8. Don't Take Yourself Too Seriously.

What are 3 methods of assessing personality? ›

These include such assessments as the interview, rating scales, self-reports, personality inventories, projective techniques, and behavioral observation.

What are the four methods of personality assessment? ›

Autobiography, questionnaire, personality inventory and interview are some of the techniques where the individual is required to speak about himself.

What are the three types of personality assessments? ›

Commonly used personality tests include the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI), the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI), and the Sixteen Personality Factor Questionnaire.

What is personality in psychology PDF? ›

A common saying in field of personality psychology is; “Some things change; some things stay the same.” According to Allport (1961), “Personality is a dynamic organisation, inside the person, of psychophysical systems that create the person's characteristic patterns of thoughts, feelings and behaviors.” The ...

What is personality in psychology class 12? ›

Psychology definition: Personality refers to our characteristic ways of responding to individuals and situations. Personality refers to unique and relatively stable qualities that characterise an individual's behaviour across different situations over a period of time.

What is Allport's definition of personality? ›

Allport's definition of Personality. “Personality is the dynamic organization within the individual of those psychophysical systems that determine his unique adjustments to the environment.” ( 1937)

What is a good personality? ›

When we say that someone has a "good personality" we mean that they are likable, interesting and pleasant to be with. Everyone wants to be attractive to others. To that end, having a good personality is vital - probably even more so than good looks.

How personality is formed? ›

According to social cognitive theory, personality formation occurs when people observe the behaviors of others. This leads to adaptation and assimilation, particularly if those behaviors are rewarded.

What is difference between behavior and personality? ›

Essentially, personality is referred to as the combination of values, views, set responses, patterns of thought and characteristics which are relatively stable aspects of an individual. Behaviour on the other hand, is how that individual comes across to others in their actions.

What are the factors of personality? ›

Personality traits are understood as patterns of thought, feeling, and behaviour that are relatively enduring across an individual's life span. The traits that constitute the five-factor model are extraversion, neuroticism, openness to experience, agreeableness, and conscientiousness.

What are the elements of personality? ›

Id, Ego, and Superego: Freud's Elements of Personality.

What are the 4 factors that influence personality? ›

There are 4 major determinants of personality which include the physical environment, heredity, experiences and culture.

What is self theory of personality? ›

Central to Rogers' personality theory is the notion of self or self-concept. This is defined as "the organized, consistent set of perceptions and beliefs about oneself." The self is the humanistic term for who we really are as a person.

What is self and personality in psychology? ›

Self and personality refer to the characteristic ways in which we define our existence. They also refer to the ways in which our experiences are organised and show up in our behaviour. From common observation we know that different people hold different ideas about themselves.

What are the 4 types of personality Class 12? ›

There are four types of personality: A, B, C and D.
  • (a) Type A: The individuals with this type of personality trait are very competitive and high achievers. ...
  • (b) Type B: These type of individuals are not competitive in nature. ...
  • (c) Type C: These type of individuals spend time on trying. ...
  • (d) Type D:
28 Nov 2018

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